Project Leader: Prof. Manish Kumar, IIT Gandhinagar

This research project is to investigate the end use residential water consumption such as toilet, kitchen, washing clothes, bath and outdoor with respect to the water quality, seasonal variation and variation across socio-economic groups in Gandhinagar. Both dry season and rainy season are compared along with the consideration of the regional variation i.e. both urban and rural areas as well as life style and in given water availability. In addition, the pressure and flow rate influencing the total and end use water consumption patterns will be examined. 

The end uses estimates are determined based on both (i) a survey and also (ii) the direct measurement method using the digital meters that can display the flow and the volume consumed.

Understanding the above usage patterns can enable intelligent partial recycling of water within the house or society or community, with partial or no treatment. E.g. usage of waste water from kitchen may be usable in garden, or from washing clothes can be fed to flush toilets. This has potential to reduce the fresh water requirements in houses and communities, thus saving of water, reducing pressure on water supply departments, and increase effective availability of water for users.

This project is a unique study in India of its type for water management and sustainability.

About Indian Institute of Gandhinagar and Project Leader

Prof. Manish Kumar, PhD [The Univ. of Tokyo]. Assistant Professor – Dept. of Earth Sciences. Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinaga Affiliate, Centre for Sustainable Development, IITGN, He is the associate editor for Groundwater for Sustainable Development and Hydrological Research Letter

IIT Gandhinagar, a premier technology institute based at Gandhinagar, Gujarat, is committed to a holistic and modern approach to education in engineering disciplines and beyond; cutting-edge research addressing global challenges; and outreach that enables us to give back. IIT Gandhinagar offers a unique undergraduate and graduate education experience in India. It has launched several unmatched innovations in curriculum as well as research programs.

For more details, visit IITGN website


AjmalRoshanManishKumar: Water end-use estimation can support the urban water crisis management: A critical review, Journal of Environmental Management, Elsevier, Volume 268, 15 August 2020,   

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